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The State of Art
                    Sculpture & 3D

                    Sally Hewett                Billie Bond                                                                                   Sculpture & 3D is a branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions; it
                    Ilua Hauck da Silva         Seamus Moran                                                                                  is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the
                    Hollie Mackenzie            Paul McCloskey                                                                                removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material), in stone, metal,
                    Victoria Collins            Karla Hamlet                                                                                  ceramics, wood and other materials, but since modernism, shifts in the sculptural
                    Dorcas Casey                Louise Seijen Ten Hoorn                                                                       process have led to an almost complete freedom of materials and process.
                    Marianne Broch              Mercedes Ferrari
                    Tony Murray                 Heidi Kreitchet                                                                               The earliest known human artefacts recognisable as what we would call sculpture
                    Satomi Sugimoto             Ann Goddard                                                                                   date from the period known as the Upper Paleolithic, which is roughly from 40,000
                    Simon Raab                  Eric Troffkin                                                                                 to 10,000 years ago. These objects are small female fi gures with bulbous breasts
                                                                                                                                              and buttocks carved from stone or ivory, and are assumed to be fertility fi gures.
                    Tom Blatt                   Siobhan Connor
                    Lourenço de Castro          Lauren Kelly                                                                                  The most famous of them is known as the Venus of Willendorf (the place in Austria
                    Aris Katsilakis             Mette Fruergaard-Jensen                                                                       where it was found in 1908).
                    Rachel Olin                 Mark Connolly & Diego Zamora
                    Shaun Hall                  Emma Caton                                                                                    Sculpture fl ourished in ancient Egypt from about 5,000 years ago and in ancient
                                                                                                                                              Greece from some 2,000 years later. In Greece it reached what is considered to
                    Angela Speight              Robert Furness
                                                                                                                                              be a peak of perfection in the period from about 500–400 BC. At that time, as
                                                                                                                                              well as making carved sculpture, the Greeks brought the technique of casting
                                                                                                                                              sculpture in bronze to a high degree of sophistication. Following the fall of the
                                                                                                                                              Roman Empire the technique of bronze casting was almost lost but, together with
                    The State of Art, art book series #2 is published by Bare Hill Publishing.                                                carved sculpture, underwent a major revival during the Renaissance.
                    © 2015 Bare Hill Publishing, All rights reserved.
                    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or                Today’s sculptors have access to an enormous array of materials, forms, concepts
                    by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission
                    of the publishers.                                                                                                        and  techniques.  All of  which  when  used  can  be  presented  under  the  term
                    This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired
                    out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than              ‘sculpture’, which suggests that  the  discipline  is no  longer a recognisable art
                    that in which it is published and without a similar conditions including this condition being imposed on the              form with fi xed boundaries and rules but instead it can expand its own terms of
                    subsequent purchaser.
                                                                                                                                              reference at will, bringing almost anything into the mix to create sculpture. And
                    © 2015 Artwork and photography copyrights belong to each artist unless otherwise stated.
                    ISBN 978-1-909825-13-0                                                                                                    with the recent exponential increase in digital technology, the development of
                    Editing: Andy Laffan, Chris Hodson and Robin Laffan.
                    Design: Andy Laffan.                                                                                                      the internet and global communications our thinking about ourselves, society and
                                                                                                          the  space  or  environment  that we occupy  is changing  too.  Artists are  visually
                    Front cover: Attitudes Passionelles by Louise Seijen ten Hoorn                                                            aware of these changes and are refl ecting these as social and political issues in
                                                                                                                                              the sculpture they are creating today.

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